Cover of the Letter of Baeza about the
Agrarian Patrimony. Seville: UNÍA, 2013
The province of Granada is a diverse territory in which the Agrarian Patrimony is the very rich. According to the Letter of Baeza, “the Agrarian Patrimony is formed by the set of natural and cultural goods, material and immaterial, generated or taken advantage by the agrarian activity throughout the history” (CASTILLO, 2013).
In the territory that contains the Seven Towns, the agriculture has been, and it is yet, one of the basic sources of the economic, social and cultural development. The cultural events of the rural world are usually linked to this hybrid activity that implies necessarily culture and nature.
In addition to provide food and carry out other assignments (environmental preservation, territorial balance, etc.), it has numerous cultural, landscape and human values.
That is why the Agrarian Patrimony has an excellent ethnographic character, meaning that it incorporates the past through the living reality, linking it to persist and to continue. It expresses the cultural and social identity of these communities, its norms and values.
The agricultural era, due to its integration in the rural scenery and to its socio-economic function, is an out-standing hereditary element. It also has other connotations linked to the Immaterial and Ethnographic Patrimony that make it singular, emphasizing its facet as space of sociability.
At present, many of the catalogued eras (threshing floor) in Seven Towns are abandoned. The reason of this fact is, basically, the cessation of the threshing works, which has caused that the platforms are partial or completely covered by the vegetation, as well as the destruction of the retaining walls and the structures associated to the platforms.
The era as a working space
Source: Town hall of Colomera
DEFINITION AND STRUCTURE
The eras (threshing floor) are clean and solid areas, outdoors and prepared to thresh and winnowing the cereals and to obtain this way the grain. When they are grouped in a collective area, the set is named common land. Its use is usually a community.
Eras of Tózar (Moclín)
Source: Town hall of Moclín
The era as a space of sociability
Source: Town hall of Montejícar
In the traditional societies the areas of the agriculture, in addition to being ambiences where to develop the agricultural activities, they had a lot of importance in the social and cultural relations.
The eras (threshing floor) as sociability areas are provided with a series of values integrated to the Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Seven Towns. These are cultural events that reflect the interaction of the society with the historical, geographical and socioeconomic characteristics of the territory to which it belongs, causing a feeling of identity and continuity and helping to promote this way the respect of the cultural diversity.
The Intangible cultural heritage (Convention for the Safe-conduct of the Intangible cultural heritage, UNESCO, 2003) associated to the eras (threshing floor) can be seen in in the following fields:
PatrimoNY ORAL. LINGUISTIC PECULIARITIES
The vehicle of transmission of the oral culture, in all its expressions and forms, are the persons. There is a specific vocabulary, a set of expressions and specialized terms (consult terminological glossary here) that constitute oral declarations linked to the different work phases in the field, among them the tasks carried out in the era. We can emphasize the names given to the different tasks (to fan, to thresh, to transport, to heap), to the implements and tools that were part of them (threshing machine, fingerstall, pitchfork) and to the traditional professions that represent them.