A

Acarreadera
A thick cord or rope used to bind the unthreshed grain when taking it from the field to the threshing floor by cart, so as the unthreshed grain does not slide sideways.
Acarreo (sheaf-carrying)
The action of carrying the unthreshed grain from the field to the threshing floor, using horses or carts, loaded with the unthreshed grain.
Aguaderas
A compartmentalized esparto structure, borne by the horses to carry water pitchers or other elements, such as food.
Albarda (packsaddle)

The padded part of the horse tack, put on the animal´s back so as to protect it from any injuries that the load may cause.

albarda
Albardón
A hollow tack, higher than the albarda (packsaddle), put on the horses so as to ride them.
Almocafre, amocafre (weeder)
An instrument used to weed the ground and transplant seedlings.
Arado (plow)
A wooden or iron tool used to till the land by opening furrows. It may be both animal drawned or engine powered. It prepares and loosens the soil before seeding. It is considered to be the evolution of the pick and the hoe.
arado plow
Arar (plowing)
Till the land or loosen the soil by opening furrows with the plow or a hand tool (a pick or a hoe). This prepares the soil for the seeding, making it less compact, easing water circulation for proper watering, and removing weeds.
Arrollar
As a result of improper threshing, the grain piles up. This happens when the grain is wet, so the thresher sweeps it along and scratches the stones of the threshing floor.
Atadero, atillo
A cord or rope made of esparto, about one meter long, used to bind the unthresehd grain making sheaves or bundles.
Aventadora (winnowing machine)
A manually-operated or combustion engine-powered machine used to winnow, which results in very clean grain and saves time and manpower. It consists of a series of mechanisms, such as rockers, sieves and fans. Over its evolution it has become a threshing machine too, increasing its technification and its size. Finally, towed threshing-winnowing machines have also been developed.
winnowing machine
Aventar (winnowing)
Throw in the air the mix of grain and straw obtained from threshing with a hayfork. During this process, the wind blows the straw away while the clean grain always falls on the same place.

B

Barbecho (fallow)
The period of time during which the land is left unsown in order to restore its fertility. It normally takes from one to three years. This term is also applicable to untilled land.
Bielda (winnowing fork)
A farming tool, similar to bieldo (winnowing rake), consisting of five, six or seven tines and two crossed sticks forming a grid with them. It is used to rake, load and store the straw.
Bieldo (winnowing rake)
A farming tool consisting of a long wooden handle with a stick in its middle, perpendicular to one of its ends, three or four tine-shaped points coming from it. It is used to winnow and move the straw or the cut grain.
Botija (earthenware jug)
A one-hole clay container, to bring water to the farmers working the field.
Botija (earthenware jug)

C

Cabaña (cabin, hut)
A small hut or shelter, made of logs or reed, and grass or straw-roofed; used by farmers to keep their tools, shelter from bad weather, cool their drink and as a watch point when the grain is at the threshing floor during the night.
Cámaras (Attics, storage chambers)
The rooms at top of the houses, where the grain is stored, together with other harvested products, kept in separate compartments.
Capacho, capacha, espuerta, cebero (wicker basket or pannier bag)
A container made of esparto or other flexible material, with tow small handles at the sides. It is normally broader than it is tall, and used to transport all sorts of things.
Carretero (cartwright)
The person responsible for carrying the grain and the straw, usually by cart.
Carro (cart)
A two-wheel mean of transport, made of wood, usually animal-drawn and driven by a cartwright. It is used to carry the unthreshed grain from the field to the threshing floor, the already threshed grain from the threshing floor to the barns, and the straw to the hay lofts.
cart
Celemín
A unit of measurement for wheat, equal to 4,6 liters or the twelfth part of a bushel.
celemin
Cortijo (homestead)
The center of an agricultural holding. Its size depends on the size of the farm itself. It includes the house, the barns, the storage chambers and other outbuildings.
Cosechadora (combine)
A wheeled machine, self-propelled or drawn, which reaps, threshes, cleans and bags the grain in one single process.
combine
Costales
The hemp or canvas bags used to carry and store the grain.
costal
Criba (sieve)
A circular wooden structure, made of mesh with different wefts. It is used to clean the grain, removing any impurity which the wind may have not blown away when winnowing.
sieve
Cribado (sieving)
The operation consisting in laying the grain on the sieve and, by means of a swinging movement, separating it from any impurity which the winnowing process has not been able to remove.

D

Dedil (fingerstall)
A harvesting tool consisting in small hollow cylinders, made of reed or leather, put on the fingers of the hand grabbing the grain to protect them from sickle cuts.
fingerstall

E

Ejido (common land)
The set of threshing floors grouped together as a collective space. Its use is normally communal.
Empedrar (paving)
The job consisting in replacing the stones which the thresher may lose while working at the threshing floor. A light hammer, with cylindrical head and flat ends is used. The pavior also fixes the metal saws of the threshers.
Era (threshing floor)
The clean and often paved tract of land used to thresh grain, legumes and other crops.
Escardar (weeding)
Remove weeds and thistles from cropped lands.
Escobón (long-handled broom)
A broom made of stalks bundled together and attached to a stick. It is used to sweep the threshing floor after threshing and winnowing.
escobon
Espigar (gleaning)
Collect the ears of grain left behind by the reapers.

G

Gañán (laborer, farmhand)
The farm laborer working under someone else´s command.
Gavilla (bundle)
A bunch of harvested wheat ears bound together with a cord. Three gavillas made an haz (sheaf).
bundle
Golpe
Each one of the wheat ears collected during harvesting.
Granero (barn)
Silo. A storage building for grain.
Granza (chaff)
The half-threshed grain.

H

Hacina (pile)
A square-based pile of grain, in which the sheaves are intertwined, upwardly and decreasingly to a single sheaf on top, in order to avoid collapsing.
Hacinar (piling up)
To heap or pile the unthreshed grain at the threshing floor before threshing, forming hacinas.
Harnero
A small sieve.
Haz (sheaf)
A bunch of unthreshed grain, bound with a cord or atadero. It consists of three gavillas (bundles).
Herpil (esparto bag)
The net or mesh made of vegetable fibers, attached to the cart so as to keep the grain or the straw, and therefore make transport easier.
Horca (hayfork)
A wooden tool consisting of a long habdle and two, three, four or five tines iet the end. It is used to turn over the half-threshed grain, winnow and pile the already threshed grain. It is made with roots and branches, specially selected for their shape and their adequacy to the function intended. It may also be made of iron.
hayfork
Horcate (hame)
A horseshoe-shaped wooden or iron harness, put on the neck of the horse.
Hoz (sickle)
A harvesting tool, consisting of a wooden handle attached to a curved blade, whose concave side may be either sharp or tined.
sickle

M

Manguitos (over-sleeves)
The canvas sleeves protecting the reaper´s arms, covering them up to the elbows, so the grain does not irritate their skin.
Media fanega (half a bushel)
A unit of measurement for grain, equal to 22 kilograms of wheat or 18 kilograms of barley. It is a trapezoid-shaped box with tapered end. It is used to check the amount of grain collected and to put it in the costales (hemp or canvas bags). Sometimes it is also used as a crib for the little children or babies at the threshing floor.
half a bushel
Mies
The ripe grain, ready to be harvested.
Molino harinero (flour mill)
A machine or device (by extension, also the specific building where this is placed) to mill the grain in order to obtain flour. Among its typologies, rotating mills (both manual and animal-powered), windmills and watermills may be found.
flour mill

P

Pajar (hayloft, haystack)
A storage building or space for straw, which is kept dry in the inside.
Pala (shovel)
A wooden tool consisting of a curved rectangular panel attached to a long handle. It is used to turn over the half-threshed grain and to winnow.
shovel
Parva
The unthreshed grain laid on the threshing floor, forming a circle and ready to be threshed.
Pósito (granary)
A storage building for grain. It may be either public or private. Originally, its main function was to supply the village with bread. Over time, its purpose was to supply grain to the farmers and residents needing it.

R

Rasero (strickle)
A wooden tool used to level off grain meaures.
Rastrilla, rastrillo (rake)
A wooden or metal tool with tines at the end and a handle, used to collect the already threshed grain.
rake
Rastro (rake)
A wooden tool, consisting of a long board and some rings in its middle, where draft animals are coupled so as to collect the grain once is has been threshed.
rake
Rastrojera (stubble field)
The tract of land covered with stubble after the grain is harvested.
Rastrojo (stubble)
The cut stalks left behind after harvesting.

S

Siega (harvesting, reaping)
The action of cutting the ripen crops, carried out by the reapers.
Siembra (seeding)
The action of sowing the land with cereal seeds, extensible to crops of any other kind.
Silo (silo)
A storage building or space for grain or any other materials in large quantities, which are kept dry in the inside. It is ususally underground and cylinder-shaped.
silo

T

Tahona (bread oven, bakery)
The premises where bread and other flour products are made and sold. It can be either public or private.
Terriza
A non-paved threshing floor, made of rammed earth instead.
Trilla (threshing)
The activity carried out by the thresherman after reaping, in order to separate the chaff from the grains. While the grain is being threshed, the straw is crushed. As well as threshers, depending on the period and the region, a diverse range of other systems have been used, such as: beating or trampling the grain, and using flails or clubs. Pliny the Elder described these three traditional ways of threshing in his Natural History.
Trilladora (thrasher, thresher, threshing machine)
A tractor-pulled and previously steam-propelled machine. Its belt and pulley system collects the unthreshed grain through a moving ramp and takes it to the feeding mouth. In the inside, the chaff and the grains are separated on the shaking board by a serrated cylinder called crusher. After successive cleaning systems through several sievings, the grain comes out of a tube and is loaded in bags.
Trillo de cilindros (cylinder thresher)
A type of thresher having four or five wooden cylinders underneath, with embedded blades.
cylinder thresher
Trillo de piedra (stone thresher)
A type of animal-drawn thresher consisting of a thick rectangular wooden board, made of several assembled planks. Its front part is narrower, curved upwards and its inner surface is covered with embedded sharp stonechips (usually silex), arranged edgewise or lined up. The size depends on the working animal, whether a mule or an ass.
stone thresher
Trillo de sierra (serrated thresher)
A variation of the stone thresher in which the stonechips are replaced by metal saws (blades), arranged lengthways.
Trillo, trilla (threshing machine, thresher)
A farming tool used in threshing tasks. There are two main types: animal-drawn or rollered. Sometimes the word trilla refers to the more traditional animal-drawn type, while the word trillo refers to the rollered one. The threshing machine is driven by the thresherman and horse-pulled over the grain laid on the threshing floor, separating the chaff from the grains with its sharp pieces, either lithic or metallic.

Y

Yugo (yoke)
A wooden or iron harness put on the neck of the mules and both on the neck and the head of the oxen. The shaft of the cart, plow, etc. is attached to it.
Yunta
A team of oxen, mules or other working animals, joined by a yoke and used in farming or sheaf-carrying tasks.

Z

Zoqueta
A wooden glove used during reaping to protect the hand which does not hold the sickle. It has a hole at the end and is tied to the wrist with a cord. The little finger, middle finger and ring finger are put inside, while the thumb and index finger stay outside to grab the wheat ears.
zoqueta