THE ERA (THRESHING FLOOR) IN THE CLASSICAL SOURCES: GREECE
“«The reapers were cutting a field with high ears, shining in their hands the sharp sickles; the bunches were throughout the furrow, and with them three men formed sheaves, who received them from children's hands that reached them incessantly».
The threshing was done in an era, using oxen for this task. Then the grain was filled with air and it was ground in manual mills.
Poems of the Iliad (XVIII, 551 and following pages), in Struve, V. V. (Third edition, 1979). History of the Ancient Greece. Publishing Akal, Madrid. ISBN 84-7339-190-X. (Page 115)
THE ERA IN THE CLASSICAL SOURCES: ROME
«Messis ipsa alibi tribulis in area, alibi equarum gressibus exteritur, alibi perticis flagellatur»
Caius Plinius Secundus. “Naturalis Historia”, Liber XVIII (naturae frugum), lXXII - 298.
«The grains (they are threshed) in a few places with the threshing machine in the era, in others it is trampled superficially by the knighthood, in others it is thrashed with flails»
Key Plinio Segundo. “Historia Natural“, Book XVIII (How to take a farm), lXXII - 298.
«In order that a harvest is very abundant and with the best quality, it is convenient that the ears are taken without accumulating them in the era, so that they have the grain in optimal conditions and it (is convenient) that the grains are separated from the ears in the era, whose process is done, among other ways, with mules and a threshing machine. This one is made with a wooden table (with the bottom side) armed with stones or (cutting) pieces of iron that, with a muleteer in from of them or a big counterweight, is dragged by the mules yoked and separates this way the grains of the ear».
«another way of doing it is by means of a few indented rollers with a few bearings, this type receives the name of plostellum punicum (Punic carriage), a person can sit down above it and move the gadget that the mules drag, as it is done in the Nearer Hispania and in other places.».
Marco Terencio Varrón Lúculo. “Rerum Rusticarum de Agri Culture”. Liber primus, LII.
«The era, if it is possible, must be placed in such a way that it could be supervised by the lord or by the overseer, the best is the one that is paved, because not only it allows that the cereal is threshed quickly, since the soil does not yield to the bets of the hoofs not of the threshing machines, but also because these cereals, once fanned, remain cleaner and lack of pebbles and small lumps which in an era with heavy ground almost always are deposited again...»
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella. “De Re Rustica”, Cap. VI.
Cantes de TrillaEsos cantes de trilla
ya no se cantan.
Ya no se duermen los trigos
sobre la parva.
Aquellos viejos tiempos
tú nunca añores,
que eran tiempos de hambre
Y de sudores.
Yo tuve dos mulillas,
torda y castaña.
¡Lo mejor en la trilla
de toda España!
La lunita está triste
porque en la era,
en las noches de julio,
nadie la espera.
Ahora ya viejo y solo
cierro los ojos,
y me veo con mi yinta
por los rastrojos.
Esta noche con la luna
tiendo la parva,
y después si tú quieres
pierdo la calma.
“El viento separó el grano,
las palas recogieron el trigo,
los brazos guardaron los sacos,
ya sí, habrá pan en los meses de frío.”